download Horizontal intergovernmental forums that bring together the constituent units of a federation are increasingly common. This article examines the origin, organization and purpose of the premium horizontal intergovernmental forums in Kenya, Spain and Canada. The constitutional origin of institutions of horizontal intergovernmental relations is uncommon. The experience of the three political forums confirm the view that institutionalization of intergovernmental relations may not be a necessary condition for effective intergovernmental relations. Yet, in countries with no history of multilevel governance or a culture of cross-boundary interaction, institutionalization might give horizontal intergovernmental relation the prompt it needs. Despite the expectation that they will focus on facilitating horizontal collaboration, however, the forums are focused on creating a common front against the national government. They may be horizontal in their structure but vertical in their orientation.
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