The debate on federalism in Iraq is interrelated with the identity conflict which has dominated Iraqi politics since the regime change in 2003. Federalism was proposed and became constitutional in 2005 as a way to face the inherent crisis in modern Iraq resulting from the lack of a political system through which power could be distributed and the peculiarities of different ethno-sectarian communities could be included. However, federalism has not been clearly defined and there are several concerns about its form, structure and limits. The question whether this federalism will be ethno-sectarian or administrative is very crucial today, and is strongly connected to identity politics and to the conflicting concepts regarding the definition of Iraqi nationalism and identity. This article attempts to locate the debate concerning federalism within that broader debate and to analyse, albeit briefly, the socio-political and ideological implications
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